Building capacity to help Africa trade better


United States – Kenya bilateral trade negotiations: From a Free Trade Area to a Strategic Trade and Investment Partnership

22 Dec 2022 ~ Maleehah Khandwalla
Bilateral trade between the United States (U.S.) and Kenya commenced through the enactment of the African Opportunity and Growth Act (AGOA) as Title I of The Trade and Development Act, sig...read more

Redefining the global supply chain through digitalisation: Enhancing cross-border trade facilitation and trade competitiveness through the e-Bill of Lading

22 Dec 2022 ~ Rwatida Mafurutu
A Customs bill of entry and the bill of lading (BOL) are among the critical and determinant documents that are used in the clearance of cargo and services that are internationally traded. ...read more

Anticipation of Trade in Services Under AfCFTA – Malawi’s Determination of Schedule of Commitments Under the Protocol on Trade in Services

22 Dec 2022 ~ Kahaki Jere
Malawi ratified the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) on 15 January 2021 and has been participating in the negotiations of trade in services liberalisation under the Protocol on...read more

Consumer Redress as a Precursor to Consumer Trust in the Digital Age

22 Dec 2022 ~ Eunice Phiri
Digital financial services (DFS) are any financial services that are available digitally and they include payments, savings, credit transfers and insurance. They are procured through digit...read more

The Micro and Small Medium Enterprises Development in Kenya

22 Dec 2022 ~ Elizabeth Mulae
Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) are the economic backbone in Kenya comprising the majority (98%) of all business entities, registered and non-registered, in the country....read more

Regulatory Framework for State-Owned Enterprises in the Implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area

21 Dec 2022 ~ Legborsi Nwiabu
The governance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) is essential for efficient and open markets at both the domestic, continental and international levels. In many countries, SOEs are the mai...read more

Nigeria’s Preparedness for the Implementation of the AfCFTA: An Institutional Perspective

21 Dec 2022 ~ Adetutu Talabi
On 7 July 2019, President Muhammadu Buhari signed the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA), formalising Nigeria as a party. After originally declining to sign the deal, t...read more

Leveraging the AfCFTA trade facilitation regime to advance formalisation strategies for Informal Cross-Border Traders (ICBTs) in Africa

21 Dec 2022 ~ Faith Mbakhwa
Economists estimate that a sizeable part of intra-African trade currently goes unrecorded, and this presents challenges for the regional integration agenda in the region[1]. The Economic C...read more

La ZLECA n'est pas lancée sur une bonne base

20 Dec 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
La ZLECA ajoute une zone de libre-échange (ZLE) supplémentaire aux accords commerciaux et d’intégration Africains existants. Elle doit prendre en compte les intérêts de cinquante-ci...read more

Comment la ZLECA s'intègre dans le schéma d'intégration régionale existant en Afrique

20 Dec 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
L’accord de la ZLECA est défini comme “le présent Accord établissant la Zone de Libre-Échange Continentale Africaine et ses protocoles, annexes et appendices qui en font partie int...read more

Did COP 27 really fail? Reflections on the climate summit

13 Dec 2022 ~ David Christianson
London’s Financial Times summed up the widespread response to the COP 27 climate summit held at Sharm el-Sheikh when it suggested the final agreement ‘encouraged some, gravely disappoi...read more

Transnet’s failure is Luderitz Bay’s opportunity – creating a new cross-border value chain

13 Dec 2022 ~ David Christianson
Transnet’s rail and harbour capacity has been entirely overwhelmed by South Africa’s surging manganese production over the past decade. In 2011, South Africa exported less than five mi...read more

COP27 outcomes – a reality check

30 Nov 2022 ~ Anthony Leiman
Those who follow the climate agreement conferences of parties are now used to the emotional roller-coaster that comes with them. COP26 looked to be a real success until the last second, wh...read more

How the AfCFTA fits into Africa’s existing regional integration scheme

23 Nov 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
The AfCFTA Agreement is defined as “this Agreement Establishing the African Continental Free Trade Area and its Protocols, Annexes and Appendices which shall form an integral part thereo...read more

Floating LNG vessels in Africa: Africa’s gas future is floating offshore

20 Nov 2022 ~ David Christianson
There is a growing trend in sub-Saharan Africa to deploy Floating Liquified Natural Gas (FLNG) technology to develop gas resources. Although generally much smaller (in terms of output), th...read more

Downbeat start to funding South Africa’s carbon transition

20 Nov 2022 ~ David Christianson
The release of South Africa’s Just Energy Transition Investment Plan (JET-IP) shortly before the opening of COP 27 in the Egyptian City of Sharm El Sheikh was rather subdued. The JET-IP ...read more

Kenya and South Africa sign deals to deepen bilateral relations

14 Nov 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
Economic integration is vital for Africa. The domestic markets of many African nations are small; several are Least Developed Countries (LDCs), land-locked, or island economies. Economic i...read more

Could Safeguards be used to promote Industrialisation?

14 Nov 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
Industrialisation depends on many policy inputs. African countries face unique challenges and must develop industrialisation policies suitable for their conditions. Such polices must now p...read more

A Promising Start to COP27: Climate Change Loss and Damage Makes it onto the Agenda

10 Nov 2022 ~ Gita Briel
The 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27) was officially opened on the 6th of November in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. The conferen...read more

5 Key Developments from COP27

10 Nov 2022 ~ Gita Briel
Delegates from nearly 200 countries have gathered in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt for the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27). COP...read more

Will Dispute Settlement Proceedings be a feature of the AfCFTA?

05 Sep 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
It will be a major advance towards rules-based trade if the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Protocol will be used by the State Parties. They do not settle disputes about trade and regional integ...read more

Why South Africa won’t hit the gas

05 Sep 2022 ~ David Christianson
The widely expected development of a South African gas economy, especially after the discovery of massive reserves in neighbouring Mozambique in February 2010, has failed to take off. At f...read more

The role of Negotiating Principles in the design of the AfCFTA

05 Sep 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
DOWNLOAD BLOG Since the launch of the Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA),[1] negotiations on trade liberalisation among African States have been based on a specific set of principles. When...read more

Digital Trade in Trade Agreements: Lessons for the AfCFTA

31 Aug 2022 ~ John Stuart
The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is in the process of taking shape. While continental free trade has not yet been fully realised, progress has been made in the number of si...read more

The AfCFTA holds more than economic Promises

30 Aug 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus, Trudi Hartzenberg
Most commentaries on the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) emphasise the massive commercial opportunities which will be unlocked, and more recently how industrialisation on the ...read more

New thinking about a US-Kenya Trade Deal

30 Aug 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
When in February 2020 the then US President, Donald Trump, and President Uhuru Kenyatta of Kenya announced that the two countries would start formal trade talks aimed at concluding a bilat...read more

South Africa’s Intractable Illegal Gold Mining Problem

25 Aug 2022 ~ David Christianson
Earlier this year, the London Bullion Market Association estimated that there are 15 million artisanal and small-scale gold miners in the world, responsible for 15-20 percent of global ann...read more

South Africa energy security – Ramaphosa lets the private sector in

04 Aug 2022 ~ David Christianson
South Africa’s President, Cyril Ramaphosa, took a step towards restoring the country’s energy security with his Energy Action Plan, announced on the 25th July. At a single stroke he bo...read more

The African Union Releases the Continent’s First Collective Climate Response Framework

03 Aug 2022 ~ Gita Briel
In February 2022, the African Union endorsed the continent’s first collective climate response framework. The AU’s Climate Change and Resilient Development Strategy and Action Plan (20...read more

Dispute Settlement in and about the AfCFTA: What to expect?

29 Jul 2022 ~ Gerhard Erasmus
African Governments do not settle their disputes about compliance with obligations in intra-African trade and economic integration agreements through adjudication. Adjudication is the lega...read more


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