Building capacity to help Africa trade better

tralac Daily News


tralac Daily News

tralac Daily News

Uganda pursues diverse routes to strong economic performance (Trade for Development News)

The agricultural sector plays a dominant role in Uganda’s economy, contributing to a quarter of the country’s Gross Domestic Product and generating 70% of employment opportunities. Uganda has demonstrated notable economic progress, with a 30% increase in its formal exports between 2008 and 2015, and a significant reduction in poverty, falling from 29% in 2008 to 18% in 2013. Gold remains a leading export earner for Uganda, contributing substantially to the nation’s total exports valued at USD 1.82 billion, representing almost half of the country’s merchandise exports. Tourism also plays a crucial role in the economy, employing a significant workforce, predominantly women. Other primary exports include coffee, cocoa beans and tea.

Zambia needs 738,000 tonnes of maize for relief efforts (CGTN)

Zambia needs approximately 738,000 metric tonnes of maize to meet the food needs of individuals impacted by drought over the next 14 months, according to the nation’s disaster response agency on Tuesday. Gabriel Pollen, the National Coordinator of the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit stated in a joint press briefing on Tuesday that the maize is required in the immediate response to provide relief food to about 6.6 million people.

“The target is 84 districts out of 116 districts in Zambia that have been negatively affected by the drought,” Pollen noted. He said so far 44,286 metric tonnes of maize has been made available by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Food Reserve Agency for immediate delivery to the affected districts, adding that the devastation caused by the drought has caused food insecurity.

Embrace ZiG to survive AfCFTA competition (The Herald)

Zimbabweans should embrace the newly introduced local currency, the Zimbabwe Gold (ZiG) to ensure the country does not become a supermarket of the region. This comes as the operationalisation of the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) gathers momentum. The US dollar is in the basket of currencies used in Zimbabwe as part of the multi-currency system.

As it stands the use of US dollar dominates local transactions and according to the Governor of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ), Dr John Mushayavanhu, by end of 2023, over 75 percent of local transactions were being conducted in US dollars. It is, however, feared that the dominance of the US dollar in the local market will attract more regional imports when the AfCFTA is operationalised, rendering Zimbabwe a supermarket for products from the region and beyond. It is highly anticipated that the use of US dollar will attract more competition locally, given the competitiveness of some regionally sourced goods.

Speaking during the AfCFTA Tariff Offer dissemination workshop convened by the Competition and Tariff Commission (CTC) and Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI) on Tuesday, economist Dr Reneth Mano, said embracing the local currency would go a long way in improving the local industry’s competitiveness in face of potential cut-throat competition to be caused by the AfCFTA.

‘Only 300 businesses in Ghana meet criteria to participate in AfCFTA’ (Ghana News Agency)

Mr Patrick Adu Osei, the Chief Programme Officer, National African Peer Review Mechanism Governing Council (NAPRM-GC), said only 300 out of 61,000 businesses engaged in Ghana meet the criteria to participate in the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) market. He said the country, in preparation towards the AfCFTA, set up the AfCFTA National Coordination Office to prepare businesses to take part in the trade market, which led to the review of businesses, with the findings presented in a report.

Mr Osei, who emphasised the need for awareness creation, said many companies in Ghana were unaware of the trade market and its prospects. “The figure tells that most Ghanaian businesses are either not aware of the AfCFTA and its requirements, so do not prepare for it, or their corporate governance practices are not adequate,” he said.

The AfCFTA National Coordination Office’s report, in response to the lack of knowledge on the trade area’s regulations, recommended that regional offices be set up to increase awareness on the market and its protocols.

Nigeria - Country Diagnostic Note 2023 (AfDB)

Nigeria’s exports of goods and services as a percentage of GDP, at 10.7 percent, is the lowest among its middle-income peers in Africa, compared to 31.2 percent for South Africa, 44 percent for Mauritius, 44.6 percent for Botswana while Tunisia and Angola stood at 42.1 percent and 44.3 percent respectively. While for decades the share of manufacturing in Nigeria’s GDP has remained at around 7.0 percent, the performance of the sector has deteriorated in the past five years; having declined by 11.5 percent, -4.3 percent and -0.2 percent between 2015 and 2017.

Nigeria’s manufacturing exports represent only 3.0 percent of total revenues from exports, but accounts for 50 percent of imports. Instead of expanding the share of manufactured goods, Nigeria focuses on a model of import substitution instead of looking to create wealth through export market development and product diversification.

Gender equality key to sustainable development (Tribune Online)

Niger Governor, Muhammed Umaru Bago has said that the gender equality of women, is a moral imperative, as well as a key driver of sustainable development and social progress. The Governor stated this while declaring Open a Two-Day 2024 North Central National Women Sensitisation Workshop, held at the Justice Idris Legbo Kutigi International Conference Center Minna, the state capital on Monday 29th April 2024.

The Governor, represented by his deputy, Comrade Yakubu Garba, opined that the theme of the workshop: “Community Participation, Critical Stakeholders Support and House of Representatives Committee on Women Affairs as essential partners in the fight against insecurity, Drug abuse, Trafficking and Violence Against Women and Children in our Society”, underscores the urgent need for collaboration and collective action by all stakeholders in tackling social vices and societal challenges, that creates safer environment for all.

Morocco: 2024 Article IV Consultation (IMF)

The Moroccan economy continued to show resilience to negative shocks. Despite water scarcity, the September 2023 earthquake, and challenging external conditions, economic activity picked up to 3 percent in 2023 thanks to strong exports and a rebound of domestic demand. Notwithstanding the pickup in growth, unemployment rose to 13.3 percent at the end of 2023, mainly reflecting the impact of water scarcity on the agricultural sector. GDP growth is expected to gradually pick up to 3½ percent over the next few years, boosted by the continued implementation of the structural reform agenda.

The current account deficit narrowed significantly. This reflects both a reduced trade deficit in goods (driven by the lower import prices of energy, raw and intermediate goods, and food items, as well as the robust performance of automotive and electronics exports), buoyant export of services (both tourism and non-tourism related), and the continued expansion of inward remittances.

The implementation of the announced structural reform agenda has continued. The first two pillars of the generalization of the social protection system, i.e., the extension of compulsory basic health insurance and the introduction of cash transfers to poor families, have now been implemented. Further steps were taken to restructuring SOEs, operationalizing the Mohammed VI Investment Fund and new Charter of Investment, and reforming both education and health care systems.

South Sudan: The world’s newest nation’s lays the foundations for trade (Trade for Development News)

South Sudan is pursuing regional, continental and international trade. Africa’s youngest country, with a population of just over 12 million people, is already a member of the EAC. With the support of the EIF and other Aid for Trade (AfT) development partners, it aims to become a member of the WTO and the AfCFTA. 

Oil revenues, which make up more than 90% of the country’s exports, have played an important part in the country’s progress since its independence from Sudan in 2011. However, the Government of South Sudan recognizes that this is not a sustainable option to lift the population out of poverty, internal conflict, and persistent humanitarian crises, all of which are compounded by vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. Agriculture employs 95% of the population – but only about 4% of South Sudan’s vast arable land is under cultivation due to insecurity. 

Surge in service sector investments to bolster intra-African services sector (The Citizen)

A recent report highlights a significant shift in global investment dynamics favouring the services sector, with analysts predicting a positive impact for intra-African services. A global shift in foreign direct investment (FDI) dynamics, with investors globally increasingly favouring the service sector over traditional manufacturing, could favour Africa, according to Tanzanian-based analyst, Musila Muoki. According to a new report by the UN Trade and Development Organization, the global FDI shift is being shaped by “trends in global value chains, technological advancements, geopolitical dynamics and environmental concerns.”

“From 2004 to 2023, the share of cross-border greenfield projects in the services sector jumped from 66% to 81%,” the authors of the report released on April 23 explain. The trend has been echoed in Africa, where greenfield service sector investment has surged, with FDI inflows as a share of the continent’s GDP being 69% in 2023, up from 40% a decade earlier

While the global shift carries concerning implications for manufacturing, the pivot towards service trade comes at a time when efforts are being made to bolster intra-African trade under the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement. Musila Muoki, co-founder of Liberty Sparks, a Tanzania-headquartered Think Tank, pointed to Africa’s readiness for a service sector takeoff fueled by AfCFTA, especially since the Trade in Services Protocol has been in force since 2019.

Africa can only attract development finance with sustainable debts - Seth Terkper (MyJoyOnline)

Seth Terkper, a former Minister of Finance, has urged African governments to strive to make their debts sustainable to attract development finance assistance. “Africa must do something about its debt, otherwise, we might be shut out of development finance,” Mr Terkper who led Ghana’s 16th International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan-support programme, said.

He explained that because many African countries have reached lower and middle-income status, they could no longer rely on grants and concessional financing for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. As such, development finance would be supportive going forward, hence, the need for African governments to assiduously work towards resolving their debt burden

Power line linking Kenya to southern Africa set for 2025 (The East African)

A key power line linking Kenya to Zambia through Tanzania is set for completion in November 2025, raising hope for cross-border electricity imports and exports among nations covered by the high-voltage grid. The Tanzania Electric Supply Company (Tanesco), the country’s power utility, confirmed that the 400 kilovolt (kV) Tanzania-Zambia line will be completed in November 2025.The project seeks to connect the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) with the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP).

Kenya is a member of the EAPP alongside 12 other countries, namely Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Others are Egypt, South Sudan, Sudan, Somalia, Libya, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Completion of the line will allow Kenya and other countries within the EAPP to sell and buy power from SAPP countries, which include South Africa, Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique, Lesotho, Eswatini, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Namibia, Botswana, and the DRC.

Liberia Launches ECOWAS Integration Program (Liberian Observer)

Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister for Regional Integration, Mr. Ibrahim Al-Bakri Nyei urged the ECOWAS National Technical Committee to identify quick win and tangible projects that will impact the lives of community citizens through the ECOWAS Cross-Border Cooperation Support Program (ECBCSP).

He remarked as he officially launched the National Platform for the ECOWAS Cross-Border Cooperation Support program aimed at facilitating Free Movement and Migration within countries of the Mano River Union while representing the Government of Liberia on Monday, April 29, 2024, at the ECOWAS Liberia Country Office first street Sinkor.

The objective of the launch is to strengthen Cross-Border Cooperation and foster joint development planning and actions, develop knowledge through capacity building, training, information, education, and Communication (IEC) on the dynamics of cross-border cooperation, promote and consolidate Peace, Stability, and development. The National Platform for ECOWAS Cross-Border Cooperation Support Program will also support actions in the area of Management of Migration, free movement, and regional security, along with the full support and implementation of Social-Economic Development Initiatives or local community development projects.

African countries want all standards harmonised (Monitor)

The African Organisation for Standards has said all countries on the continent must harmonise their standards to effectively trade under the African Continental Free Trade Area. Speaking at the 38th International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Committee for Conformity Assessment workshop organised by Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS), Dr Hermogene Nsengimana, the African Organisation for Standards secretary general, said if the African Continental Free Trade Area dream is to be achieved, all countries must ensure that their standards are harmonised to reduce duplication.

“We should borrow a leaf from the East African Community where they started harmonising standards. We need to move together if we want to push intra-continental trade,” he said, noting there has been an attempt to harmonise agro-processing, pharmaceuticals, automotive and transport standards at the continental level. “We have over 1,800 standards. By June 200 would have been harmonised. This will reduce duplication and we are also trying to make standards simple for traders,” he said.

Trade across Africa continues to be disrupted due to variances in product standards and country specifications.

#DiscoverMyAfrica, A Celebration of Creative Economy on Africa Month (African Union)

A thriving creative economy fuels innovation, jobs, and economic growth across Africa. Recognizing this potential, the African Union and Google Africa join forces to launch the #DiscoverMyAfrica Shorts Challenge, a month-long campaign of the continent’s rich diversity, heritage, and vibrant spirit.

In celebration of Africa Month, YouTube creators across Africa are invited to share short videos capturing their unique perspectives using the #DiscoverMyAfrica hashtag. The challenge encourages them to showcase various facets of African life, from music and art to food, fashion, and local landmarks. A curated playlist of African-inspired music on YouTube Music fuels inspiration and accompanies these creative expressions.

This initiative goes beyond celebration. As Ms. Chido Mpemba, AU Youth Envoy, states, “#DiscoverMyAfrica empowers African youth to share their stories and rich cultural heritage globally.” By providing a platform for African voices, the challenge fosters cultural exchange and positions Africa as a hub of creative energy. It’s about unlocking the vibrant future of Africa’s creative landscape, aligning with the vision of a digitally-enabled Africa harnessing its cultural wealth for economic growth and social progress.

Building resilience in Africa’s civil aviation: lessons from COVID-19 initiatives (UNECA)

The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in collaboration with the African Union Commission (AUC), the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC) and the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) hosted a webinar in Addis Ababa on April 28 to discuss the resilience of the African Civil Aviation Industry during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

Aviation is crucial for effective implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). However, strong collaboration among stakeholders of the aviation industry is essential to optimise the benefits of AfCFTA, said Robert Lisinge, Acting Director of the Private Sector Development and Finance Division of ECA.

The event assessed the effectiveness of strategies for the survival and recovery of the aviation industry initiated by various organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. “It is crucial to undertake an in-depth review of strategies and policies initiated during the pandemic, to determine the extent to which they contributed to build the resilience of the aviation industry, and identify lessons learned from implementing the strategies” said Lisinge.

See also: African airlines carried estimate of 86 million passengers in 2023 (Tribune Online)

PAPSS Set For Expansion to Boost Intra-Africa Trade Payments (This Day Live)

The Pan African Payment and Settlement System (PAPSS) which was launched to make cross-border transactions seamless, is set to capture more markets in Africa. The Chief Executive Officer of PAPSS, Mr. Mike Ogbalu, disclosed the plan during a stakeholders’ forum held in Lagos. Ogbolu, who was represented, said Fintech across the continent of Africa can operate more seamlessly and widely with the assistance of PAPSS.

According to him, “Currently, there are numerous impediments and challenges facing intra-African trade payments. Banks must navigate sometimes conflicting local, multi-country and multiregional regulations to enable the seamless movement of funds on behalf of their diverse customers across the continent. Operational inefficiencies and onerous compliance requirements are time-consuming impediments.”

As a centralized Financial Market Infrastructure that enables the efficient flow of money securely across African borders, minimizing risk and contributing to financial integration across the regions, PAPSS works in collaboration with Africa’s central banks to provide a payment and settlement service to which commercial banks and licensed payment service providers across the region can connect as ‘Participants’.

In his presentation, Mr. Osita Ugwu, Chief Technology Officer at PAPSS, disclosed that 60 banks have already gone live on PAPSS platform, while another 60 are doing integration.

Stakeholders empowered on corporate governance to take advantage of AfCFTA (GhanaWeb)

The National African Peer Review Mechanism (NAPRM), in collaboration with the Commission for Civic Education, has engaged the district oversight committees in the Upper East Region, on corporate governance to take advantage of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). The stakeholders, including business associations, community and faith-based organisations, were drawn from 10 municipal and district and assemblies in the region.

The review examined key corporate governance and intra-African trade challenges that must be addressed to facilitate the AfCFTA implementation in Ghana. It was carried out on the theme: “Corporate Governance as a Catalyst for the Implementation of the AfCFTA in the Republic of Ghana”.

The Ecosystem: Africa and Europe connect on innovation (Science|Business)

The EU has a long history of research cooperation with Africa, but has only recently turned its attention to innovation cooperation. The challenge has been to find a way of working that is mutually beneficial, rather than reproducing the one-sided relationships typical in development aid projects. The conclusion this year of the ‘Enrich in Africa’ project, which set out to connect innovation ecosystems in Europe and Africa, is one sign that a successful way forward may have been found. Its approach, and the community it has built, will now be taken forward by the Enrich in Africa Centre, based in Cape Town.

There is also the possibility of closing the gap for innovations moving at different speeds in Africa and Europe. For example, mobile money has developed rapidly in Africa, while Europe has focused heavily on deep tech. “The innovations that make it, make it because the market needs them, and that is the same in Africa and Europe,” Ntuli said. “But there is something to be learned in Africa about how innovations succeed against the odds, in some cases when very little infrastructure is in place, because the market needs them so much.”

World Bank identifies key digital trade gaps in Horn of Africa Initiative report (Trade Finance Global)

A comprehensive Digital Trade Gap Assessment released by the World Bank provides an analysis of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) framework across the Horn of Africa Initiative (HoAI) countries. The Horn of Africa Initiative, a country-led programme, was launched in 2019 with the goal of promoting regional economic integration between five countries: Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and South Sudan.

The Bank’s report highlights a varied landscape of digital readiness among the HoAI countries: Kenya emerges as the frontrunner with robust digital trade systems, including an effective National Single Window (NSW) that facilitates streamlined trade processes. Ethiopia is catching up with significant initiatives like the Ethiopia Electronic Single Window (EESW) and ongoing efforts to enhance electronic cargo tracking systems. Djibouti and South Sudan show potential for growth despite the current limited digital trade infrastructure. Both countries are prioritised for immediate digital enhancements, including the development of trade information portals and e-cargo tracking solutions. Somalia presents a unique challenge with its nascent digital infrastructure, which requires foundational developments to support basic trade processes.

Telco, fintech partnerships key to Africa’s digital economy - Elliott (Businessday NG)

What this means is that together, MTN and Mastercard can work to connect millions of people and small businesses across Africa with digital tools to transact through secure mobile payments, expanding access to the benefits of the cashless digital economy. The partnership will also see Mastercard support MTN’s ambition to grow into a major fintech platform that can add even more value for both merchants and consumers on the continent.

Why Africa can reap billions from the digital economy (The Exchange Africa)

Africa is on the verge of an economic revolution. From the north to the southern part of the Saharan desert, nations are striving to eliminate poverty and gain a strong foothold in global markets. In the same vein, the continent is banking on the potential held by the digital economy. Reports ping the sector to higher standards, including a report from non-profit Endeavor predicting that the market size of Africa’s digital economy could reach $712 billion by 2050.

Africa’s digital economy, already valued at $115 billion, is still in a nascent phase, with only 33 per cent of the population using the internet. However, Endeavor’s analysis shows rapid growth. Further, Africa’s GDP is expanding at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4 per cent, comparing favourably to Europe and Latin America’s 1.7 per cent. The population is simultaneously becoming much more prosperous, with consumer spending growing at 9.4 per cent CAGR.

In 2012, Africa’s digital economy was estimated at roughly 1.1 percent, or $30 billion of its GDP. In 2020, estimates indicated a contribution of 4.5 per cent, or $115 billion. This growth is expected to continue in the coming years. A 2020 study by Google and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) found that the digital economy could contribute $180 billion (5.2 per cent) to the continent’s GDP by 2025, and $712 (8.5 per cent) billion by 2050.

See also:

The race for AI supremacy (This Day Live)

A Roadmap for AI Governance: Lessons from G20 National Strategies (ORF)

Joint OECD - UNDP initiative continues successfully working with developing countries to boost tax revenues and mobilise domestic resources (OECD)

A groundbreaking international tax initiative managed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) continues making strong progress assisting developing countries boost tax revenues and better mobilise domestic resources, according to a report released today.

Effective taxation and fiscal policies are vital for development financing as they not only generate revenue but also foster accountable and inclusive governance. In this context, the Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB) Annual Report 2024 shows the impact of the initiative’s work over the past nine years, resulting in the generation of USD 2.30 billion in additional tax collections and USD 6.05 billion in additional tax assessments by developing countries worldwide. These efforts have significantly contributed to advancing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by increasing domestic resource mobilisation.

New report reveals limited funding for global south organizations (Devex)

Less than one-tenth of the official development assistance funneled to civil society goes toward organizations in the global south, according to a new report released last week — one that analyzed the funding behaviors of a dozen donors from 2009 to 2021.

The report, Too Southern to be Funded, was published by the #ShiftThePower movement, a coalition of organizations pushing for locally led development. It found that almost 63% of funding went to countries’ own civil society organizations, while just under 29% went to civil society in other global north countries, leaving a little over 8% for organizations in the global south.

UN Report Charts Path Towards Just and Sustainable Transition in Africa (SDG Knowledge Hub)

The UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) has issued a report that highlights opportunities for just and sustainable transitions (JSTs) in Africa. The 2024 Economic Report on Africa argues that “youthful population, arable land, renewable resource endowments, huge deposits of strategic minerals, and latecomer advantages from emerging technologies position Africa to shape the sustainability transition at the global level while closing its own gaps in energy availability.”

Recognizing the role the region’s abundant renewable energy resources can play in enabling African countries to achieve their development objectives, the report acknowledges that, guided by African-informed narratives and needs, “the transition away from fossils needs to be gradual.” Africa’s current investment in its “sustainability transition” and in renewables remains negligible, according to the report.

“A just and sustainable transition… promoting accelerated, inclusive, and sustainable growth, as well as diversification and green industrialization will help Africa reach its potential,” noted Under-Secretary General and UNECA Executive Secretary Claver Gatete in a foreword. “For this to materialize, however, African countries need holistic development plans and strategies that fundamentally redirect their production, consumption, governance, technology, human capital, and financial systems,” he underscored.

See also:

Labor and Climate Change: G20 Strategies for a Just Transition (G20 Brasil 2024)

Green Tape: EU trade policy (Friedrich Naumann Foundation)

Unlocking The Future With Clean Energy: A Global Imperative (Forbes)

G7 commits to coal phaseout with caveats, may influence G20 and COP29 talks (Businiess Standard)

The Group of Seven (G7) developed economies, in the recent meeting of its Climate, Energy, and Environment Ministerial, has decided to phase out unabated coal during the first half of the 2030s. This decision sets the tone for the upcoming global dialogues on energy transition at COP29 (Conference of the Parties) in Baku and the Group of Twenty (G20) in Brazil later this year.

“We commit to phasing out existing unabated coal power generation in our energy systems during the first half of the 2030s or in a timeline consistent with keeping a limit of 1.5°C temperature rise within reach, in line with countries’ net-zero pathways. (We would also) reduce as much as possible, in the meanwhile, the utilisation of unabated coal power generation plants in our energy systems to a level consistent with keeping the limit of 1.5°C temperature rise within reach,” the final communiqué of the G7 meeting in Tunis, Italy, said.

While experts have criticised the language around the phaseout commitment as weak, the G7 is likely to exert more pressure on developing nations to give up fossil fuels — a stance they maintained at the last G20 meeting presided over by India and at COP28 in Dubai.

ICAO symposium underscores importance of global capacity development initiatives (ICAO)

 ICAO Council President Salvatore Sciacchitano, speaking yesterday at the 2024 ICAO Global Implementation Support Symposium (GISS), ICAO’s leading implementation support and capacity-building event, advocated for air transport’s role as a catalyst for sustainable development. He called for greater financial and political investment to secure the safety, security, and sustainability of its expansion.

“We must commit to a global implementation support strategy that ensures the ever-increasing benefits of international civil aviation are enjoyed by all citizens of the world, regardless of nationality,” Mr. Sciacchitano declared. “Through diplomacy, technical excellence, and a shared vision of success, we have created a safe and secure air transportation system that enables responsible and sustainable growth,” he added, noting that through the combined efforts of government and industry, “our efforts, guidance, and continued support will ensure our ongoing success.” 

Quick links

Pretoria’s interest-based BRICS foreign policy and trade focus (Daily Maverick)

Charting the Future of Customs: Insights from the 243rd/244th PTC Meetings (WCO)

Intergovernmental Group of Experts on E-commerce and the Digital Economy, seventh session (UNCTAD)

Members review reforms to facilitate participation in rules of origin work (WTO)

Cautious optimism after latest un plastic treaty negotiations (Devex)

Brasil advances debates on information integrity and platform regulation at G20 side event (G20 Brasil 2024)

BRICS: Russia Gains $14 Billion Oil Revenue Despite US Sanctions (Watcher Guru)


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