In Nairobi Declaration, Japan and African nations vow to fight terrorism, stress rule-based maritime order
Japanese and African leaders on Sunday pledged to fight terrorism and emphasized the importance of rules-based maritime order as they wrapped up a Japan-led international conference on the continent’s development.
In the Nairobi Declaration adopted at the Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD), the leaders also agreed to promote investment in infrastructure that leads to job creation in the fast-growing region.
“Japan’s public and private sectors will offer cooperation for the development that is led by Africa itself,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe told a news conference after wrap-up of the sixth TICAD, convened in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi.
Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta told the same news conference that Japan does not press its own views on the continent and continues to be a force for African development.
The triennial conference was held outside Japan for the first time, as Tokyo seeks to strengthen its economic and political presence in the continent amid China’s increasing influence.
On the conference’s opening day Saturday, Abe pledged that Japan will mobilize a total of $30 billion in private- and public-sector funds to invest in Africa over three years to boost infrastructure-building on the resource-rich continent.
“We stress the importance of promoting regional and international efforts related to maritime security, including piracy, illegal fishing and other maritime crimes, maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law,” the Nairobi Declaration said.
The reference to maritime security comes as tensions remain high in the South China and East China seas amid China’s growing assertiveness there. Japan has repeatedly called for the rule of law and opposed the use of force or coercion in maintaining maritime security.
The declaration also reconfirmed efforts to reform the U.N. Security Council, currently comprising five permanent veto-wielding members – Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States – and 10 elected members that serve two-year terms.
Africa is vital for Japan in its bid to become a permanent member of the Security Council. There are 54 countries on the continent, making up a large voting bloc among the world body’s 193 members.
As for investment in infrastructure, Japan hopes to distinguish its aid in the region from that of China through the promotion of “quality infrastructure,” Japanese officials said.
“We will promote investment in quality infrastructure which leads to job creation and transfer of expertise and know-how, as well as to capacity building of African countries and people,” the declaration said.
In the discussions at TICAD, Abe called on his African counterparts to take measures to create a favorable business environment in terms of safety and legal matters so that Japanese investments in the region can be promoted.
On terrorism, the declaration said: “We strongly condemn terrorism in all forms and manifestations, wherever and by whomever committed.… We call for enhanced international cooperation in strengthening counter-terrorism capacity in Africa.”
Abe was accompanied by around 200 officials from more than 70 Japanese companies during his trip to Nairobi, the first official visit by a Japanese prime minister in 15 years.
Sadayuki Sakakibara, chairman of the Japan Business Federation, the country’s most influential business lobby also known as Keidanren, also took part.
Noting that Africa faces challenges such as terrorism, infectious diseases and falling commodities prices, the Japanese and African leaders also vowed in the Nairobi Declaration to make efforts to create jobs for young people and women, promote structural reforms to diversify industries and enhance health care systems to improve the quality of life.
TICAD VI Nairobi Declaration
Advancing Africa’s sustainable development agenda
TICAD partnership for prosperity
1.1 We, the Heads of State and Government and delegations of Japan and 54 African countries together with the representatives of 52 other partner countries, 74 international and regional organizations, representatives of the private sector and civil society organizations (CSOs) from both Japan and Africa met in Nairobi, Kenya, 27-28 August 2016, for the Sixth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD VI).
1.2 We welcome TICAD VI as the very first TICAD to be held in Africa. TICAD started in 1993 and has been serving as a pioneering multilateral forum for international cooperation on African development. Acknowledging the achievements made to date, we affirm that the first TICAD in Africa, which derives from a proposal from Africa itself, is a manifestation of African ownership of this process. We affirm that this occasion opens up a new chapter of the TICAD process.
1.3 We recognize that Africa is a dynamic continent that now hosts most of the fastest growing economies in the world. This has led to an increase in the number of countries that progressed from low income to middle income status. The continent is bestowed with rich natural resources and a fast growing population which is estimated to reach up to two billion in 2050. We especially acknowledge the growing middle class, which makes Africa a significant player in the global economy.
1.4 We affirm that TICAD is a unique process that has contributed remarkably to Africa’s development and regional integration agenda. It is a forum that promotes synergy with a candid and heart-to-heart communication among Africa, Japan and the international community and values the sense of equality and mutual benefit. We acknowledge the contribution made so far by all co-organizers to the TICAD process - the Government of Japan, the United Nations, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the African Union Commission (AUC). Bearing in mind the high potential of this partnership, we reaffirm our strong commitment to continue to pursue the TICAD process with its distinctive elements stated below as its guiding principles:
Open and inclusive forum: TICAD is an open and inclusive forum built on the twin principles of African ownership and international partnership that continue to be strengthened. It mobilizes global support for Africa’s development by promoting continuous dialogue, collaboration, and voluntary initiatives among a wide range of actors.
Engagement of multi-stakeholders: TICAD engages multiple actors such as governments, international and regional organizations, private sector and CSOs, each with its own comparative advantages. TICAD process also promotes south-south and triangular cooperation within the framework of national and regional development programmes.
Alignment with Africa’s own agenda: TICAD is anchored on the conviction that Africa’s socio-economic transformation is central to global stability and prosperity. It prioritizes the Africa’s agenda, respects the continent’s dignity, and uses a pragmatic development paradigm and modalities to bring concrete results to support Africa’s development agenda.
Emphasis on human security and people-centered development: TICAD recognizes that the people of the African continent are the most precious resource and values each and every person’s effort. TICAD also recognizes that enhancing the capacity of each person and community is the key to sustainable development. This human security approach is aligned to Africa’s own aspiration for people-centered development.
Effective implementation with integrated follow-up mechanisms: TICAD has the three-tier follow-up mechanism (Joint Secretariat, Joint Monitoring Committee and Follow-up Meetings) with clear reporting which enhances the mutual accountability.
1.5 TICAD continues to play a unique role in the development dialogues on Africa through its innovative, open, multi-stakeholder approach, which provides for ample potential for its further evolution and transformation.
2.0 Analysis of the current status
2.1 Progress of TICAD V commitments
We welcome AUC’s participation in the follow-up process, as a new co-organizer from TICAD V, which has further enhanced the African ownership of the TICAD process. We acknowledge with satisfaction the steady progress being made under the key strategic measures articulated at TICAD V. For instance, the progress recorded in promoting increased rice production under the multilateral initiative of CARD (Coalition for African Rice Development), and in advancing regional integration through region-wide transportation and trade corridor development is acknowledged. The giant strides achieved in enhancing the education and skills of young African men and women are also noted. We call on the various TICAD partners to accelerate efforts towards delivering the full implementation of the Yokohama Action Plan adopted at TICAD V, and confirm that it remains relevant.
2.2 Positive developments in Africa
2.2.1 We welcome the economic and social advancement and the progressing regional integration, such as the enhanced role of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA) and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) in Africa’s development management. We acknowledge and praise the adoption of Agenda 2063 and its First Ten-Year Implementation Plan, as well as its several flagship projects, which have articulated the continent’s development vision, aspirations, goals and priorities. We also recognize and commend the adoption of the Common African Position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda by African Heads of State and Government, which facilitated global negotiations and culminated in the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the United Nations.
2.2.2 We recognize that the goals and targets of Agenda 2063 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are interrelated, and that we should shift from a silo to integrated approach of implementation with a commitment to leave no one behind. Further, we recognize the increasingly significant role of business in facilitating the continent’s development particularly in promoting fair trade and investments, supporting entrepreneurial development, promoting technology transfer and creating decent jobs.
2.3 Three major emerging challenges in Africa
In spite of the foregoing progress, we acknowledge and share concerns on three major emerging challenges that have been impacting the development landscape in Africa since TICAD V in 2013.
2.3.1 Decline of global commodity prices
Firstly, we recognize the decline of global primary commodity prices has exacerbated fiscal pressure and debt sustainability of many countries. We acknowledge that most African economies need further diversification to reduce dependence on the primary commodity sector, especially the extractive industries. We also acknowledge the need for value addition and beneficiation. In this context, we recognize that promoting structural economic transformation through diversification, including development of the blue/ocean economy, promotion of green economy, expansion of agriculture and industrialization are essential to creating resilient economies, stimulating decent employment opportunities especially for youth and women, minimizing income and wealth disparities, and eradicating poverty as articulated in Agenda 2063. We also recognize the urgent need for Africa to put together strategies to take full advantage of its financial and human resources tapping into the demographic dividend and promoting employment opportunities, social integration and sustainable socio-economic development. We stress the importance of combatting illicit financial outflows through concerted international efforts.
2.3.2 Ebola outbreak
Secondly, the outbreak of the Ebola virus disease not only caused a huge loss of life but also crippled socio-economic activities in affected countries and impacted the rest of the continent. This underscores the importance of resilient and sustainable health systems in achieving human security, maintaining and promoting national productivity, and generating shared wealth. While the Ebola virus pandemic was contained and affected countries declared Ebola-free in the end, the experience has shown that the continent’s health systems must be strengthened and have the capacity to respond to, better prepare for, and prevent pandemics and other public health crises. It has also highlighted the need for well coordinated swift international actions, including financial support, at the early stage of health emergencies. At the same time, in order to tackle the persistent burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, Zika, Yellow Fever and other communicable and non-communicable diseases, the continent requires increased access to health services, including those related to maternal and child health, immunization, sexual and reproductive health, non-communicable diseases, and nutrition, by all individuals throughout their lives. We recognize that concerted efforts are needed to improve health financing, procurement and supply chain management, and infrastructure for more effective service delivery as well as to close gaps in health workforce, information, governance, medical products, pharmaceuticals and technologies including affordable new vaccines. This will support the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Agenda 2063, which will also enhance preparedness for and prevention of public health emergencies.
2.3.3 Radicalization, terrorism, armed conflict and climate change
Thirdly, the rising wave of radicalization, acts of terrorism and armed conflict impedes social cohesion, destroys livelihoods and deepens vulnerabilities. We reiterate the importance of social stability to address radicalization, terrorism and violent extremism through a multidimensional strategy encompassing political, economic, social and cultural dimensions. From this perspective, we acknowledge that promoting inclusive and sustainable livelihoods and managing shocks and vulnerabilities can foster shared prosperity, address the root causes of radicalization, and underpin social stability. Helping countries to develop and implement affordable social protection mechanisms that improve access to productive assets for poor households and reduce seasonal income fluctuations is equally central to enhancing resilience. It is estimated that Africa will be the continent most severely impacted by climate change and seriously vulnerable to climate variability. We acknowledge that addressing climate change, the loss of natural resources, desertification, El Nino, natural disasters, as well as forced displacement, in a timely manner is essential to achieve social stability. We also recognize the crucial role played by relevant government authorities in Africa for long-term institution-building which is a priority for peacebuilding, as recognized in relevant UN Security Council documents. We welcome the contributions of many countries in sharing key priorities for institution-building in Africa on the occasion of the Open Debate on Peacebuilding in Africa of July 2016.
2.4 Africa’s response to the emerging challenges
We applaud the efforts of African countries and African continental, regional and sub-regional organizations in addressing these challenges, and reaffirm our commitment to turning these challenges into opportunities for transformative development. We confirm that deepening the human and institutional capacities to address challenges, building on the continent’s past gains and leveraging the capacity of the private sector to unleash socio-economic transformation, quality of life and national prosperity, remain critical.
2.5 Developments in the international arena
We recognize and welcome the outcome of international events and initiatives including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, the Third International Conference on the Financing for Development, the Tenth World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference, the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Humanitarian Summit, the G7 Ise-Shima Summit and the fourteenth session of United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. These and other global initiatives, including the International Ebola Recovery Conference, have further galvanized our collective actions towards a better world. We affirm that TICAD VI comes at a critical juncture of translating global vision into concrete actions for Africa.
3.0 Priority areas of TICAD VI
We reaffirm that the Yokohama Declaration and Action Plan remain effective and their principles valid. We also reaffirm that actions therein, including boosting economic growth, accelerating infrastructure and capacity development, empowering farmers as mainstream economic actors, promoting sustainable and resilient growth, creating an inclusive society for growth, and consolidating peace, stability, democracy and good governance, will be duly implemented. TICAD VI builds on TICAD V, addresses Africa’s emerging development challenges, and responds strategically to pertinent continental and global agreements such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on climate change. We affirm the alignment of TICAD VI to Agenda 2063 and its First Ten Year Implementation Plan, relevant NEPAD programmes, regional and national development plans and strategic priorities. Given the need to address the highlighted challenges and international development priorities mentioned above, and building on the TICAD guiding principles, including the imperatives of human security and engagement of multi-stakeholders, we affirm that the following pillars have been identified under TICAD VI.
3.1 Pillar 1: Promoting structural economic transformation through economic diversification and industrialization
3.1.1 Economic diversification and industrialization
We resolve to contribute in sustainable manner to economic diversification and industrialization by helping to accelerate the growth of industries including agriculture, livestock, minerals, blue/ocean economy, innovation and ICT-led economy, manufacturing and tourism. From this perspective, we will engage in energy issues, facilitate solutions to urban problems and create new markets by linking consumers, producers, farmers and economies through region-wide development. We will also promote value addition to and beneficiation of primary commodities, such as extractives and agricultural products by raising productivity in a sustainable way and developing national, regional and global value chains. We will also promote and support the role of African enterprises, including SMEs/SMIs, in such area as information and communication technology and tourism, and note the importance of free movement of goods, services and people.
3.1.2 Quality infrastructure
To further reinforce these efforts, we emphasize the importance of quality infrastructure, which ensures economic efficiency in view of life-cycle cost, reliable operation, safety, resilience against natural disasters, and sustainability, aligned with the development needs of African countries. We will promote investment in quality infrastructure which leads to job creation and transfer of expertise and know-how, as well as to capacity building of African countries and people, and that addresses social and environment impact and enhances connectivity at national, regional and continental levels.
3.1.3 Private sector development
We also emphasize the significant role played by the private sector and the importance of improving the business environment to promote trade and investment to create employment, especially for women and youth. We will take measures to enhance the role of private sector in development, including through increased private investment, entrepreneurship, business reform, innovation, public-private partnership and access to financing. We will encourage the introduction of incentives that would serve as an encouragement for industrialists to establish and enhance production capacities in Africa.
3.1.4 Human resource development
To promote and sustain structural transformation, we will also accelerate efforts to develop requisite skills through education, technical and vocational training, and to improve institutional capacity for economic diversification. We recognize that empowering youth and women is also central to achieving demographic dividends.
3.2 Pillar 2: Promoting resilient health systems for quality of life
3.2.1 Health system strengthening
We resolve to strengthen health systems to enhance their resilience, sustainability and inclusiveness. In so doing, we will aim to increase the continent’s capacity to respond to, better prepare for and prevent epidemics, pandemics, other public health crises as well as address various health issues including Ebola, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, other communicable and non-communicable diseases including cancer, as well as future threats such as antimicrobial resistance. Our efforts include, inter alia, strengthening institutions and building national and local capacities by reinforcing capable, efficient, responsible, transparent, equitable and accountable health systems to improve essential service delivery; promoting research and development; developing the capacity of health service providers; promoting hygiene and access to safe water, sanitation, immunization, affordable medicine, nutrition and primary health care including maternal and child health; promoting collaboration in pharmaceutical technologies. We will also accelerate actions to improve health surveillance, monitoring and evaluation at national, regional and continental levels, bearing in mind the importance of the African Centres for Disease Control, and by implementing the International Health Regulations (IHR) with self and external evaluations.
3.2.2 Response to public health crises
The efforts to strengthen health systems at various levels throughout the continent should be well-coordinated with the current international movement towards reinforcing the global health architecture to strengthen prompt and effective response to public health crises, including the WHO reform on health emergencies, relevant funding mechanisms under WHO and the World Bank to enable adequate and timely disbursement of financial resources at the early stage of health emergencies and effective collaboration among relevant international and regional organizations as well as between countries from different regions. We also put particular emphasis on enhancing prevention and preparedness against pandemics, including by mobilizing financial resources through relevant international organizations. We also stress the importance of building on Africa’s own experience in fighting against health crises to enhance networking of human resources within the continent.
3.2.3 Universal health coverage
We strongly believe that strengthened health systems will lay the foundation for achieving universal health coverage (UHC) which will contribute to strengthening preparedness for public health emergencies, as well as to improving the quality of life. We stress the importance of access to sexual and reproductive health and family planning, bearing in mind the reproductive rights and the rights of women and adolescent girls. We also welcome international and regional frameworks by multi-sectoral stakeholders including countries, international organizations, private sector and CSOs to promote UHC in a coordinated manner, such as “International Health Partnership for UHC 2030” and “UHC in Africa”. There should be particular emphasis on country and community-led resilient, inclusive, and sustainable health systems supported by effective policymakers and managers to ensure country ownership and by coordinated international assistance, including efforts to increase global funding for health system strengthening to ensure health services to all individuals throughout their lives. A greater use of enhanced country coordination mechanisms for health system strengthening should also be supported. In this regard, research, development and innovation for addressing diseases are indispensable.
3.3 Pillar 3: Promoting social stability for shared prosperity
3.3.1 Social stability and peacebuilding
We resolve to promote social stability by responding comprehensively to security concerns. In this regard, we emphasize that protecting and empowering individuals, especially youth, women and persons with disabilities, families and their communities by improving access to education, technical and vocational training, job creation and opportunity, and promoting social cohesion, are fundamental. We also emphasize that youth empowerment and capacity development are central to achieving demographic dividends, preventing forced migration and conflict, and promoting peacebuilding. We also resolve to support enhancing the capacity of national and local government authorities as well as international and African regional institutions for peace and stability on the continent, including the capacity for surveillance and containment, cross-border security, coordinated border management and peacekeeping operations. Furthermore, we are committed to addressing the shocks and vulnerabilities associated with armed conflict, political instability and economic downturns.
3.3.2 Terrorism and violent extremism
We strongly condemn terrorism in all forms and manifestations, wherever and by whomever committed. The spread of terrorism undermines international peace and security and endangers our ongoing efforts to strengthen regional and global security and economy as well as to ensure sustainable growth and development. We reaffirm our commitment to fight against terrorism and violent extremism. We call for enhanced international cooperation in strengthening counter-terrorism capacity in Africa.
3.3.3 Global issues and challenges
We commit to address climate change, deforestation and desertification, poaching, loss of natural resources, food insecurity, water and energy deficit and natural disasters as well as their impacts on migration and security. We also note the negative impact of poverty, debt burden, unilateral and coercive measures on social stability. We welcome the Paris Agreement, and stress the critical importance of its implementation for achieving sustainable development. We look forward to the twenty second session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to be held in Morocco in November 2016.
3.3.4 Maritime security
We stress the importance of promoting regional and international efforts related to maritime security, including piracy, illegal fishing and other maritime crimes, maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). We also underscore the importance of strengthening maritime security and safety through international and regional cooperation, as reflected in 2050 Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIM Strategy), in accordance with international maritime laws.
3.3.5 United Nations in the 21st century
We reaffirm our determination to urgently reform UN bodies, including the Security Council, and will maintain political momentum through enhanced dialogue to find the best approach.
3.4 Strategies for cross cutting areas
We acknowledge that in order to address effectively the issues under the aforementioned three pillars and achieve concrete results, we need to utilize and promote measures along the following cross-cutting areas as enablers:
Empowering youth, women and persons with disabilities: We affirm that quality education and requisite skills for youth and women could be a driving force for structural economic transformation and industrialization. It is also a basis for sound health systems and a prerequisite for social stability.
Promoting science, technology and innovation: Science, technology including ICT, and innovation are useful tools for realizing sustained quality growth in wide range of sectors including, not only in high value added industry but also in areas such as food security, health, climate change, other environmental issues as well as social stability. It could also be used to address security challenges.
Human resource development: We reaffirm that human resource development is a key catalyst for economic transformation.
Advancing public-private partnerships: We acknowledge that partnership between public and private organizations helps to maximize development results.
Engaging private sector and civil society: We also recognize the crucial role the private sector plays in accelerating rapid economic growth, creating decent jobs and promoting human resource development and enhancing exchanges in the areas such as economy, education, culture, sport and science. Civil society engagement, including volunteer opportunities, needs to be further promoted.
Strengthening institutions and good governance: Good governance, as well as democracy, respect for human rights, justice and the rule of law are fundamental bases of development. These are in line with the concept of human security which is one of the guiding principles of TICAD and are also advocated as aspiration 3 in Agenda 2063. Towards this end, we recognize the importance of the strengthening of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and the establishment of the African Human Security Index.
4.0 Nairobi Implementation Plan and way forward
4.1 Nairobi Implementation Plan
4.1.1 We reiterate the commitment to continue implementing measures under the Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017. As we shed light on the recent emerging challenges and developments, we are also committed to promoting the measures, as described in Nairobi Implementation Plan, in support of the aforementioned priority areas under the three pillars; Promoting structural economic transformation through diversification and industrialization; Promoting resilient health systems for quality of life; and Promoting social stability for shared prosperity.
4.1.2 We reaffirm that the measures we take will be aligned with Agenda 2063 and its First Ten Year Implementation Plan, relevant NEPAD programmes, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as well as the Paris Agreement on climate change.
4.2 Follow-up mechanism
We affirm that effective implementation of the measures under the three pillars will call for an efficient follow-up mechanism, underpinned by robust monitoring and reporting systems. The Joint Secretariat, the Joint Monitoring Committee and the Follow-up Meetings have substantial roles to play in ensuring quality results within the timeframe of the partnership.
4.3 Way forward
4.3.1 Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017 remains effective and will be valid until TICAD VII. Nairobi Implementation Plan will provide additional measures to address newly emerging priorities stipulated in Nairobi Declaration and form an integral part of extended Yokohama Action Plan. We are committed to steadily promote this process to effectively reflect Africa’s developmental needs based on overall ownership of its development agenda.
4.3.2 TICAD VII will be held in Japan in 2019. Follow-up meetings at ministerial and senior official -levels will be held before TICAD VII.
4.3.3 We express our sincere appreciation to H.E. Mr. Uhuru Kenyatta, President of the Republic of Kenya, for co-chairing and hosting TICAD VI in Nairobi. We further express our deep gratitude to the Government and the people of the Republic of Kenya for the warm hospitality extended to the participants of TICAD VI.