News Archive July 2018

tralac’s Daily News Selection

Profiled African REC, trade and development events starting today:  

  1. In Lomé: Joint ECOWAS, ECCAS Summit of Heads of State and Government

  2. In Kigali: African Tax Authorities Forum

  3. In Durban: IORA's 8th Bi-annual Meeting of the Committee of Senior Officials.  It will be followed by the 5th Indian Ocean Dialogue (1-2 August), and the Indian Ocean Rim Academic Group (3 August)

  4. In Nairobi: 2nd Kenya Trade Week, on the theme Powering Kenya Big 4 Agenda through Trade

A profile of the new ECOWAS Commission President, Cote d’Ivoire’s Jean-Claude Kassi Brou

Trade in services and employment (Unctad)

In this study we examine the link between employment and trade in services by using the WTO-OECD TiVA database on trade in value added statistics. We explore the employment potential of trade in services in comparison with merchandise trade and quantify the employment elasticity of services exports. Extracts (pdf):

Among developing countries, only a few countries have managed to become global suppliers in services: China and India are the leading services exporters among developing countries followed by Singapore and Hong Kong (China). More importantly, the gap between the few successful cases and the rest of the group has been widening. Just ten countries produced about 70% of developing countries’ services exports in 2015, which corresponds to 21.2% of the global total. The gap was much smaller a few years ago: the top 10 accounted for about 61.9% of developing countries’ services exports in 2005.

Developing countries’ rising share in services trade has been asymmetric across product categories. While they account for around 30% of world services exports (figure 2) the share rises up to around 45% in construction and travel services, in which developing countries gained a significant rise in market share during the last decade, falling to 5% in charges for intellectual property and 14.5% in financial services. There are noticeable increases in developing countries’ share in telecommunications, computer, and information services as well as in financial services over the last ten years. Yet, out of a 10 percentage point increase in the telecommunications, computer, and information services exports share, about 8 percentage points is due to rising shares of Chinese and Indian services exports.

Despite this progress, many developing countries are still facing challenges in establishing internationally competitive productive capacities in the services sector. In many developing countries, services imports are increasing faster than exports leading to persistent, and for some countries widening, trade deficits in services trade (figure 3). From 1990 to 2015, the gap between world services imports and exports shares of developing countries widened from about 4 percentage points to 8.2 percentage points. There is also stark contrast between developed and developing countries in services trade balance over the 2010-2015 period (figure 4). While most developed countries compensate their trade deficits in merchandise trade with surpluses in services trade, the opposite is the case in developing countries. Although the persistence of trade deficits in services is present across all regions of the developing world, it is particularly visible in LDCs.

Nigeria launches Coalition of Services Industries (NOTN)

The Nigerian Office for Trade Negotiations has launched the Nigerian Coalition of Services Industries with the strong support of private sector market operators, regulators and competent authorities. The NCSI will function as a lobby group to support trade in services; validate services priorities for Nigeria; and, formulate inputs and advice on positions for Nigeria in domestic, regional, continental and multilateral trade negotiations. The NCIS will identify measures for improving Nigeria’s competitiveness for trade in services. The Director General of NOTN, Ambassador Osakwe said: “The Nigerian Coalition of Services Industries was an overdue necessity to re-balance the national dialogue and exchange of views on trade and economic policy matters relevant to diversification, and accelerating recovery and growth”. He told the meeting that even “at the regional level, in ECOWAS there was no Schedule for Specific Commitments on Trade in Services”. This was a gap that required urgent filling, more so because services accounted for approximately 54% of the Nigerian economy”. [Related: AITCR statement on its AfCFTA research agenda, collaborative relations with NOTN]

ECOWAS establishes regional product certification mark (Leadership)

The ECOWAS Commission has adopted the draft documents for the establishment of the ECOWAS Regional Product Certification Scheme (ECOMark) within the framework of the West Africa Quality System Programme implemented by UNIDO, with 12m Euro funding from the European Union.

Ghana: ‘Don’t sack us from retail markets; we will pay taxes’ - Nigerian traders (GhanaWeb)

Nigerian traders in Ghana have lauded the government for suspending its directive to sack foreign retailers from the various markets in the country. The Trade Ministry last month issued a directive to foreign traders operating in the market to move out by 27 July. But the ministry later suspended the directive, citing low education and inadequate consultations. The Ghana Union of Traders Association has expressed its disappointment over the current development and has asked members to defend their businesses. The Association has accused the foreigners of selling fake and substandard goods to the Ghanaian consumers.

Ghana’s footwear manufacturing industry collapsing - Association (GhanaWeb)

“We have been neglected for far too long as one of the nation’s most lucrative industries which employs more than 300,000 people along the value chain,” Mr Addo Kuffour, spokesperson and an executive member of the Association, said.  Addressing a meeting of the Association at the Jubilee Park, Kumasi, he explained that the local footwear industry, which served the needs of countries in the West African sub-Region, including Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Togo and Cameroun, had taken a considerable nosedive. “We are no longer able to compete with the influx of imported and inferior products on the Ghanaian market, and this is a worry to all stakeholders,” he noted, adding that this called for prompt intervention on the part of government to save the situation. The Association, amongst others, is advocating the promulgation of comprehensive policies and regulations to revamp the industry.

Mauritius: Greenhouse Gas emissions increase by 3% from 2016 to 2017 (GoM)

Greenhouse gas emissions went up by about 3% from 2016 to 2017, gross emissions increased from 5,403 to 5,572 thousand tonnes of CO2 equivalent, and net emissions, after absorption by forest and land use practices, increased from 5,040 to 5,207 thousand tonnes CO2 equivalent, according to a press communiqué released by Statistics Mauritius on Environment Statistics 2017 (pdf). In 2017, the energy sector accounted for the largest share of emissions (76%) followed by the waste sector (20%). [Mozambique: AfDB, IFAD help build knowledge on climate finance, natural capital]

Seychelles: World Bank's country partnership framework, FY18-FY23 (World Bank)

The first focus area, Sustainable Growth for Shared Prosperity, seeks the retooling of tourism and fisheries, the core sectors of the economy, to open opportunities for local business to generate higher value-added and better paying employment opportunities, especially, among the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution. The second focus area, Fostering Inclusion and Public Sector Performance, supports the government’s efforts to reorient its significant investment in social assistance towards investment in human capital, especially the bottom 40%.

Farmers’ Organizations in Africa (IFAD)

The Support to Farmers’ Organizations in Africa Programme: Main phase (2013 - 2018) is a continental programme which strengthens the institutional capacities, policy engagement and engagement of value chains of African farmers’ organizations. This publication (pdf) highlights the main results achieved with SFOAP, focusing on (i) enhanced institutional capacity; (ii) benefits at farm level; (iii) improved FOs market linkages; and (iv) stronger policy influence. The publication also includes five brief stories on the results achieved in Madagascar, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, and the East African Community.

Japan mulls asking China to jointly develop infrastructure in Africa (Mainichi)

Tokyo is leaning toward Japan-China joint development in Africa, hoping to add impetus to improving bilateral ties ahead of a visit to China by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, which Tokyo aims to realize in October. Japan intends to hold a meeting with China on Beijing's participation in a project to build roads across several West African countries before Abe's trip to China, the sources said. Tokyo has pledged more than 35 billion yen ($315 million) in loans and grants for the project, which would construct several roads connecting countries including Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso and Nigeria. The roads will total 4,000 kilometers in length.

WCO publishes 2018 edition of SAFE Framework of Standards

The 2018 version of the SAFE Framework (pdf) augments the objectives of the SAFE Framework with respect to strengthening co-operation between and among Customs administrations, for example through the exchange of information, mutual recognition of controls, mutual recognition of AEOs, and mutual administrative assistance. In addition, it calls for enhanced cooperation with government agencies entrusted with regulatory authorities over certain goods (e.g. weapons, hazardous materials) and passengers, as well as entities responsible for postal issues. The Framework now also includes certain minimum tangible benefits to AEOs, while providing a comprehensive list of AEO benefits.

Global Forum on Remittances, Investment and Development 2018: Asia-Pacific (pdf, IFAD)

One out of every 10 people (senders and receivers) in Asia-Pacific are directly affected by remittances. These private financial flows contribute to the region more than 10 times net official development assistance from all sources combined. Remittances to Asia-Pacific remain the highest in the world, at $256bn for 2017 (53% of worldwide flows).

New IMB report shows persistent piracy risk in Gulf of Guinea (ICC)

The second quarterly report from the ICC International Maritime Bureau shows that all 2018 crew kidnappings have so far occurred in the Gulf of Guinea in six separate incidents. The number of crew members taken hostage increased from 63 to 102 compared to the same time period in 2017. The number of crew kidnappings decreased from 41 by the second quarter in 2017 to 25 so far in 2018. However, all 25 crew kidnappings reported this year have occurred over six incidents in the Gulf of Guinea, highlighting the higher risks in this area. Moreover, the true number of incidents in the Gulf of Guinea is believed to be “significantly higher” than what is reported to the IMB PRC, says the report.

Monday's Quick Links:

Sweden adopts new development strategy with Zambia

Zimbabwe engages SADC over market access

ECOWAS moves to integrate gender into its peace and security architecture

New "smart city" offers glimpse into booming Mauritius-China cooperation

AfDB: Tunisia launches pilot project to use drones for data collection in agricultural sector

IMF on CEMAC: Economic outlook improving, but faster progress needed

Rand Corporation: The US-China trade war - different messages

IMF: Twin deficits in developing economies

OECD: Digital technology diffusion - a matter of capabilities, incentives or both? (pdf)

OECD: Globalisation, intellectual property products and measurement of GDP - issues and proposals (pdf)


tralac’s Daily News Selection

30 Jul 2018
Profiled African REC, trade and development events starting today: In Lomé: Joint ECOWAS, ECCAS Summit of Heads of State and Government In Kigali: African Tax Authorities Forum In Durban: IORA's 8th Bi-annual Meeting of the...
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tralac’s Daily News Selection

10th BRICS Summit Johannesburg Declaration

pdf BRICS in Africa: Collaboration for inclusive growth and shared prosperity in the 4th Industrial Revolution (914 KB)  (DIRCO)

Extracts from Section IV: BRICS partnership for global economic recovery, reform of financial and economic global governance institutions, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution 

64.  We recall that the WTO Dispute Settlement System is a cornerstone of the multilateral trading system and is designed to enhance security and predictability in international trade. We note with concern the impasse in the selection process for new Appellate Body Members that can paralyse the dispute settlement system and undermine the rights and obligations of all Members. We, therefore, urge all Members to engage constructively to address this challenge as a matter of priority.

65.  We acknowledge the need to upkeep WTO’s negotiating function. We, therefore, agree to constructively engage in further developing the current legal framework of the multilateral trading system within the WTO, taking into consideration the concerns and interests of all WTO members, including in particular the developing members.

66.  We note the steps undertaken on strengthening and ensuring the operational readiness of the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement and welcome the completion of a successful test run of the de-linked portion of the CRA mechanism. We encourage cooperation between the CRA and the IMF.

73.  We welcome the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Collaborative Research on Distributed Ledger and Blockchain Technology in the Context of the Development of the Digital Economy. We believe that this work will contribute to our cooperation in adapting to the evolving internet economy.

Brand South Africa: The BRICS brand – from economic concept to institution of global governance (pdf)

In conclusion it is found that this research report links the following concepts: institutionalisation of the BRICS, its emergence as institution of global governance, soft power, and the development of the BRICS as brand. This means that as the BRICS is institutionalised, as it implements Summit decisions, as it establishes shared institutions (e.g. the BRICS New Development Bank), as it furthers the cause of a multilateral, fair, just, and inclusive global governance system, as it seeks peaceful resolution of international conflicts – it builds the (BRICS) brand, and enhances the soft power of both the BRICS as institution and the individual member states. [The BRICS Information Centre has posted its final 2017 BRICS Xiamen Summit Compliance report]

Benefits and challenges of Free Movement of Persons in Africa (pdf, IOM)

This study demonstrates how intra-African free movement of persons can bring enormous socioeconomic benefits to the continent. It also explores some real challenges and costs in pursuing such free movement, but finds that, if managed well as part of the overall African integration and development strategy, the benefits of free movement of persons in Africa by far outweigh the costs. African States are invested in advancing and developing their economies by fostering greater intra-continental and global trade. The African people are part of that trade – ranging from small border traders, farmers, migrant workers to tourists, students or investors – and form a natural link or bridge between free movement and free trade. Free movement of persons is shown to be an integral part of the African free trade area strategy. Profiled recommendation: 

The African Union and RECs have a pivotal role in coordinating synergy, cooperation and harmonization of regional norms and standards, and as such should further enable the phased implementation of free movement of persons by the following actions: In Phase I:  Develop, adopt and promote a continental legal instrument to facilitate free movement of persons in Africa (i.e. the Protocol to Facilitate Free Movement of Persons in Africa, Right of Residence and Establishment for consideration by the African Union Assembly in January 2018); Prepare individual REC positions on how to implement free movement of persons in Africa in relation to the ongoing implementation process for REC free movement; Harmonize continental regional standards and norms on free movement of persons in Africa that include the CFTA and migration frameworks; Develop a common mechanism/dashboard/scorecard to monitor compliance and implementation of continental and regional legal and policy frameworks on free movement of persons in Africa.

The Africa Infrastructure Development Index: July 2018 (AfBD)

In general, AIDI scores (pdf) improved for virtually all countries between 2016 and 2018. The global index imputed for the entire continent has risen from 27.12 to 28.44. The range of performance for the top 10 countries, including Seychelles, Egypt, Libya, South Africa, Mauritius, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Cabo Verde and Botswana improved from 35.63-93.92 in 2016 to 36.79-94.32 in 2018 (Table I.1 and Figure 1).  Generally, the bottom 10 performing countries made very marginal gains in their performance - less than one percent point on the average, except Ethiopia and Madagascar. It is important to note that most of the countries in this category are fragile states or/and emerging from conflict. Some countries recorded a decline in the overall performance index. They include Cabo Verde, 1.49; South Sudan, 0.34; and São Tomé and Príncipe, 0.24. In terms of ranking, Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Rwanda and Uganda saw the biggest drop, falling two positions.

ICT emerges as the main driver of AIDI improvements: The ICT sector has driven the most improvements in the AIDI ratings over the past decade, compared to all other sectors.  Sub-regional rankings remain stable: The ranking of the five regions remain unchanged, with North Africa remaining in the first position, followed by Southern Africa, West Africa, East Africa and Central Africa. The best performing sub-region to emerge is Southern Africa, with an average of 2.0 points, followed by West Africa - 1.55 points. The West African region recorded only 0.36 points - the lowest average in improvement.

Angola and the SADC Trade Protocol: update (dti)

South Africa's Deputy Minister of Trade and Industry, Mr Bulelani Magwanishe, and Angola's Secretary of Commerce, Dr Anadeu Leitao Nunes, agreed that it would be significant for Angola to be part of the SADC Trade Protocol as it would contribute to regional integration efforts. Both agreed during a bilateral meeting in Luanda last week.  The meeting took place on the sidelines of a five-day trade and investment mission to Angola.  Nunes concurred with Magwanishe and was pleased to pronounce that Angola would accede to the SADC Trade Protocol and that the roadmap was referred to the secretary of SADC. He said it ought to be discussed at the next meeting of ministers. He further said there was no turning back for Angola, as this was an instruction from President João Lourenço.

SADC Regional Development Fund operationalisation imminent? (GEG Africa)

This paper recommends four key capacity-building initiatives that regional infrastructure financing should support. First, technical support should be given to member state-identified institutions that can serve as early stage champions for potential projects. Second, capacity building should support project championing and stakeholder engagement. This entails ensuring that SADC projects secure a dedicated project sponsor/manager (from a DFI or SOE, or a private consultant) and support meetings required to secure buy-in from necessary actors such as governments and SOEs.  Third, capacity-building efforts should not neglect ‘soft’ issues such as regulatory and legislative harmonisation and supporting infrastructure (such as ICT connectivity along a transport route). Fourth, as an ongoing effort alongside support for specific projects, financing should also support continuing reviews and restructuring of the RIDMP, to remove unfeasible projects that were either ill-conceived or purely politically motivated, and support the refinement and de-risking of projects with real potential. [The authors: Lesley Wentworth, Chelsea Markowitz, Zinhle Ngidi, Tulo Makwati, Neuma Grobbelaar]

Africa’s continental free trade deal: What did Namibia sign up for? (New Era)

“Will Namibia benefit from the AfCFTA? The answer for the short term is probably no,” opines Wallie Roux, a local researcher and trade analyst. In his assessment, the main reason why Namibia signed the agreement is because the country is part of SACU and SADC. As such, countries with a larger manufacturing base and enabling physical and industrial infrastructure like South Africa are in a better position to gain from the expected benefits of the AfCFTA. “Namibia’s benefits in this regard would most probably be indirectly, except for a few potential export markets for some of our products, like beer for instance.  However, Namibia’s logistics sector could benefit immensely due to the country’s strategic location and its already developed corridors to neighbouring countries.”

Nigeria: African free trade agreement splits private sector groups (Vanguard)

The Manufacturers Association of Nigeria, yesterday, dissociated the Organised Private Sector from the call by the Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture for the federal government to sign the AfCFTA. President of MAN, Dr Frank Jacobs, said at a news conference, that the position of NACCIMA does not reflect the position of the majority of the members of OPS, urging the government not to bow to pressure into signing the deal without addressing the concerns raised by stakeholders. “The position of NACCIMA is understandable, because it is an organisation of traders as opposed to those of us that are involved in manufacturing. A trader with a billion naira run a business employing less than 10 people but a manufacturer that has a billion naira plant will definitely employ more than 100 people. So, the difference is clear and government realises that.  MAN believes that Nigeria may become a big player and key driver of improved volume of intra-African trade in an African Free Trade Area with the right market offer mix, rules of origin, countervailing measures, dispute settlement mechanism, non-tariff and technical barriers provisions, amongst other protocols and annexures. The only way to guarantee this positive proposition is to ensure that our negotiating team is guided by a credible and strategic country specific study. There is no wisdom in signing-on upfront only to end up struggling to find space in the accompanying Protocols and Annexures.” [Related: "MAN added that it has since commissioned a study and expects to have the report in one-month’s time"]  

DHL, Ethiopian Airlines launch JV to build logistics infrastructure in Africa (Air Cargo World)

DHL Global Forwarding and Ethiopian Airlines have entered a joint venture, “DHL-Ethiopian Airlines Logistics Services Ltd.,” that will serve the entire continent of Africa based from Ethiopia – with Ethiopian Airlines holding a majority stake in the venture. “With its GDP growth, Africa is stepping into the spotlight as production hub,” CEO of DHL Global Forwarding for the Middle East and African regions, Amadou Diallo said. “Recent moves to open up the economy will continue to boost Ethiopia’s position as the fastest-growing economy in Africa.”

DP World to build and operate new logistics hub in Mali (pdf, DP World)

DP World has signed a 20-year concession with an automatic 20-year extension with the Republic of Mali to build and operate a 1000-hectare modern logistics hub outside of Bamako, the capital and largest city of Mali. The multimodal logistics platform, Mali Logistics Hub, will have inland container depots and container freight stations that will facilitate the import and export of goods. The Mali Logistics Hub will be located on the main road corridor from Dakar, Senegal to Bamako and close to the Dakar - Bamako rail line and will be capable of handling 300,000 TEU (twentyfoot equivalent unit), 4 million tons of bulk and general cargo. The first phase of the project, with an estimated initial investment of $50, will include an inland container depot and container freight station facility that will support the growth of the Malian economy by streamlining the import and export of goods. Construction is expected to start in 2019 and is to take approximately 18 months to complete.

Trade impacts of joining the Commonwealth: evidence from Rwanda (Commonwealth Secretariat)

The approach used is a difference-indifference model that analyses the growth rates of intra- and extra-Commonwealth exports of Rwanda before and after it became a member in 2009. The next section presents some evidence to support the idea that Commonwealth membership may have an effect on trade, even in the absence of a formal trade agreement. Section 3 then presents the case study, first looking at descriptive statistics and then moving on to use an econometric model to distill the impact of Commonwealth membership. Section 4 concludes and discusses policy implications.

Friday's Quick Links:

AfDB: South Africa sees Africa Investment Forum as vehicle for economic growth

Nigeria: FG to decentralise ports to ease Apapa gridlock

Agbiz: Cairns Group Farm Leaders disappointed at new US agricultural subsidies (pdf)

Small–scale farmers of Africa and Denmark reject free trade agreements

ICTSD: EU, US leaders pledge to negotiate "zero industrial tariffs"; set up working group on WTO reform

OECD: Arrangement on Officially Supported Export Credits - updated version (pdf)


tralac’s Daily News Selection

27 Jul 2018
10th BRICS Summit Johannesburg Declaration BRICS in Africa: Collaboration for inclusive growth and shared prosperity in the 4th Industrial Revolution (DIRCO) Extracts from Section IV: BRICS partnership for global economic...
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Zim engages Sadc over market access

Zimbabwe is still engaging Sadc on full market access as it has not yet fully implemented the Sadc Free Trade Area due to industrialisation, a government official has said.

In a statement early this week, Industry, Commerce and Enterprise Development minister Mike Bimha admitted that the country had engaged Sadc over full market access.

“Zimbabwe is still engaging Sadc on the full market access offer and has not fully implemented the Sadc Free Trade Area due to de-industrialisation. As a result, Zimbabwe has submitted its application for special dispensation for derogation for its outstanding tariff commitments under the Sadc Protocol on Trade to the Committee of Ministers of Trade,” he said.

“Member states have made preliminary comments on the application and have requested for bilateral engagements as well as additional information so that they can undertake their national consultations before pronouncing themselves on the issues. Member States are expected to accelerate the implementation of value chains in pharmaceuticals, agro-processing and mineral beneficiation.”

Bimha said the objective was to consolidate regional integration, as member states continue processes in the implementation of the Sadc industrialisation strategy and roadmap.This comes as government is seeking to increase trade in the region. Bimha also discussed proceedings at the Comesa 20th Heads of State and Government summit held in Lusaka, Zambia held last week.

“Zimbabwe’s exports to Comesa reduced from $86 million in 2016 to $83 million, representing a 3,4% decrease in domestic exports to the region.” “Zimbabwe’s top exports are cane sugar (15%), fish (8%), and tobacco (4%). In 2017, 69% of Zimbabwe’s exports to the Comesa region were mostly destined for Zambia, Kenya (21%) and Malawi (6%). Other countries in Comesa accounted for 4% of the remaining exports. There are distinct opportunities here and I would like to urge the private sector to target the Comesa region and take up more market share.”


Zim engages Sadc over market access

27 Jul 2018
Zimbabwe is still engaging Sadc on full market access as it has not yet fully implemented the Sadc Free Trade Area due to industrialisation, a government official has said. In a statement early this week, Industry, Commerce and...
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Kenya, Namibia Committed to Enhance Bilateral Relations

Kenya has reiterated its commitment to continue working closely with other African countries to advance the realization of various programmes and initiatives of the African Union, as envisioned in the Agenda 2063.

Speaking during a bilateral meeting with Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of Namibia, CS Monica Juma who is on an a three-day official visit, congratulated Namibia on the recent signing of the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) during the 31st session of the African Union Assembly in Mauritania.

The CS noted with that already 49 countries have signed the key agreement and six have already deposited the AfCFTA legal instruments. "This is a clear indication of resolute political goodwill for a more integrated Africa," the CS said adding that "we encourage Namibia to follow through with the ratification process so as to realize the African vision that is integrated, strong, united and influential global players and partners.

The CS stressed the need to enhance and solidify cooperation between the two countries by holding the inaugural session of the Joint Commission for Cooperation (JCC). She invited the Government of Namibia to support and participate in the forthcoming Sustainable Blue Economy Conference (SBEC) scheduled to take place in Nairobi from 26 -28 November 2018, aimed at leveraging the potential of the Blue Economy in Africa.

Kenya-Namibia relations date back to the 1960s and have continued to grow based on the shared aspiration and common principles for continental integration, peace and security and social-economic development through both bilateral and multilateral engagement."Our two countries have continued to cooperate in the health sector, agriculture, air and transport. Other opportunities for cooperation include trade, education, defence and tourism.

CS Juma retaliated that her visit was a clear demonstration of the Government of Kenya's readiness to work with the Government of Namibia and deliver more benefits for the two countries.


Kenya, Namibia Committed to Enhance Bilateral Relations

27 Jul 2018
Kenya has reiterated its commitment to continue working closely with other African countries to advance the realization of various programmes and initiatives of the African Union, as envisioned in the Agenda 2063. Speaking...
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